Seeing as I addressed cyberpunk, I figured I should turn a complete one hundred and eighty degrees and discuss Steampunk.
Steampunk is, at once, a narrow subgenre and also a broadly encompasing blended genre. It has become massively popular in recent times due to its often fantastical elements and the broad spectrum of ideas and concepts that can be pulled in. Steampunk is often used in alternate history, creating worlds of steam-powered airships and technology driven by steam, ingenuity, and lots and lots of gears. Some steampunk now is focused on alternate history, while other authors create entirely new worlds. Steampunk concepts such as airships, clockwork devices, and the like may sometimes appear in more traditional fantasy novels or series.
While the science behind a lot of the technology can be pure fancy, many steampunk stories have richly developed worlds. Often the best steampunk is characterized by a thorough extrapolation of both culture, society, technology, and at least some grasp of history. Steampunk characters tend to be larger than life, flamboyant, and yet gentlemen are gentlemen and ladies are ladies. At the same time, many steampunk stories feature women who stand outside of societal norms and challenge the status quo. The central core of steampunk, however, tends to be that it is complex, complicated, often larger than life, includes lots of ponderous and even dangerous machinery… and that it is fun.
Steampunk is often about adventure and exploration, and it is very much in tune with the founders of science fiction: Jules Verne and Arthur Conan Doyle. Those authors used elements of the fantastic as well as scientific principles of their day to write stories of exploration, intrigue, and discovery. In a way, steampunk can be seen as a tipped hat to these earlier authors, for whom the world still contained vast and unknown secrets, where maps required people to walk the ground and survey, and when the next horizon still held undiscovered riches.